the-basic-principles-of-oops-object-oriented-programming

The Basic Principles of OOPS (Object-Oriented Programming)

The Object-Oriented Programming Principle (OOP) is the approach or method of developing Software built around objects. Anything in the world can be described as an object. And in the case of OOPs, the thing is described in terms of its properties and behavior. For example, Consider television can be described as an object. The properties associated with it include. It's With and Height color and the type (SmartTV and CRT TV) and so on. The behavior could be it's possible to change the channel, adjust volume and settings, turn off, on, and a lot of behaviors that can be observed. The behavior can affect the properties. Changes to the channel can change the property.

The same thing happens in Object-Oriented Programming, too, in that, every object has characteristics and behaviors related to it, which are specified by the classIn essence, it's an approach to programming that follows specific principles. With the aid of these concepts, it is created. There are many different methods employed in software development. For example, the most well-known is the Object-Oriented programming method.

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Why do OOPs have a lot of popularity Compared to Other Types Of Programming Principles?

Object-Oriented Programming Principles are the most popular among other programs because it applies to real-world objects. Any operation expected to be useful is thought of as classes and objects. This allows for a more efficient approach to programming since you write code required to run at any given time. Instead, you could create classes that define the function and invoke that method by creating an object.

Object Oriented Programming - The Four Pillars of OOP, Source: Youtube, Keep On Coding

Apart from that, it provides concepts such as inheritance that improve the code's reusability and aid in applying updates quickly. Additionally, Abstraction Encapsulation helps increase the security of data.

Languages that can support Object-Oriented Programming are - C++, Java, JavaScriptC#, PHP, etc.

The fully Object-Oriented or Purely Object-Oriented languages include Python, Ruby, Scala, etc.

How is Software developed in the world of Object-Oriented Programming?

In OOPs, it is an engineered process utilized for the development of Software. First, you design blueprints that outline the objects' features, the objects' operations, and so on. Then, based upon the design, an object is developed to bring the blueprint. It's the same as other elements of engineering that are carried out. For instance, building any structure involves steps such as planning the design of an outline and completing a procedure. Once the blueprint is finished, begin construction.

Similar principles are followed by Object-oriented Programming based on the notion of classes and objects that are the main pillars of it.

In OOPs, work can be distributed among developers easily, and developers can reuse tasks.

Components of OOP

Object-oriented Programming consists of four components:

Objects The Object Object can be described as the entity that creates the classes to be integrated into the program. It defines the features, properties, and behavior of the course implemented. Example: A vehicle is an object with the property color, model the brand name, name of the brand and fuel type, and the behaviors that are similar to how it operates. These properties and behaviors create objects (CAR).

Classes A class is defined as the blueprint of an object. It describes what objects can do. It has all the features of the model, its attributes, and the behavior associated with what the model could accomplish. It is said that the class is the definition of the object. Example - Car color, engine type, etc. Based on this definition, we could make any of the various objects.

Methods Methods Methods are the characteristics of the class that are specified for the specific behavior that the course has. They can also alter the status that the object is in. Example Method for driving a vehicle. 

OOP vs Component - Handle your Game Objects, Source: Youtube, CodingQuickTips

 

Instances include the class members holding some data related to those objects in the course.

To comprehend these elements take a look at an illustration. Take the same instance of TelevisionTelevision.

According to the Object-Oriented Programming approach, you must follow specific steps

  • Define the object's name as TelevisionTelevision.
  • Define the characteristics of TelevisionTelevision such as volume, channel on and off, etc.
  • Create a function that can take care of the tree-like function of controlling the channel's volume or other aspects.
  • Now, incorporate all features in the program.

When you define an object with the name TelevisionTelevision, it's a category. You then specify the properties of the TelevisionTelevision like channel, volume, and so on. These are the examples of this class of Television. You develop functions that alter the properties that are the techniques that TelevisionTelevision uses. When you implement this into your program, you make the object of the class Televisionto integrate into the program.

What is the reason OOP was born?

Object-Oriented programming was invented in the early 1960s by Alan Kay during 1960 from 1960 to 1967. It wasn't very well-known. Because, at the time, computers weren't intended to use large-scale Software. The Software was created to perform specific tasks. However, the Software is getting more and more popular, and the program's size has grown. The procedural (also known as functional programming approach is extremely difficult to manage because the codebase will be massive. In addition, the codebase will be huge, and if an error is discovered, debugging will be highly inefficient.

Object-Oriented Programming solves this problem through its fundamentals. The tasks are defined within the class under their capabilities. The courses can be easily controlled and debugged in error.

Why was OOP Invented?, Source: Youtube, Stefan Mischook

For example, we are working on the Software for the Bank. The Bank has several departments and activities associated with them.

Similar to Loan Department, Finance Department, Insurance Department, etc. are available. Managing these departments with functional programming will be highly inefficient because each department has different roles associated with it. If an error in the anty system occurs, it will be tough to find out, and the entire Software is affected.

Principles of Object-Oriented Programming

Object-Oriented Principles typically include the four pillars that make OOP a highly effective concept. It is

  • Abstraction
  • Encapsulation
  • Inheritance
  • Polymorphism
  • Data

Operation on Data (functions Operations on Data [functions])

Therefore, if we create Software, the Software is designed to carry out tasks on data alone. If any task is executed on data, there is a chance that the same function could be executed the same way or with a modified method in the future. It is accomplished using the idea that is based on OOP principles. Let's look at the fundamentals:

Abstraction

Abstraction is the term used to describe hiding internal implementations and displaying only the required features or the set of services provided. This is the most critical component of Object-Oriented programming.

Let's get to the bottom of it by using an example

Explanation

The image above shows what the GUI display of an ATM is. If we need to withdraw money, we can utilize the ATM's GUI interface. For the process, we don't need to be concerned.

Abstraction explained with real-life examples and code! - C++ OOP Course, Source: Youtube, CodeBeauty

The same idea is relevant to the implementation of programming for Abstraction even though different programming uses an entirely different syntax for the execution of Abstraction. However, the most widely used programming languages such as JAVA use the keyword abstract, which is applied to the class and techniques to abstract a type and achieve Abstraction. It can also be accomplished using the interfaces in Java.

C+ achieves this by grouping attributes and using an access specifier that allows the data to be visible to anyone outside.

Access Specifiers are the terms that define the location from which you can access the (attributes as well as techniques) of a particular class can be accessible. For instance, Private can only be accessed inside the course, while the accessible public can access from any place or other location.

Like other programming languages, others implement their way of creating Abstraction.

Encapsulation

Encapsulation is the association of attributes and data or methods and data members into the form of a single unit. In classes, there are Data and details which perform operations on the data. According to the OOPs principle of Encapsulation, the data could be combined into one unit. Encapsulation improves the security for the data since everything related to one task has to be organized, with access can be granted according to the need.

Object Oriented Encapsulation Principle, Source: Youtube, Programming With Avelx

Features 

It also provides additional security thanks to the idea of Data Hiding.

It organizes the operation and data of the same unit.

It adds a secure layer of protection to data and permits access to information only to authorized individuals.

Inheritance

Inheritance is a method of incorporating features from the class that is already present in the new style. Let's say there's one class, regarded as the parent class, and includes some procedures associated with it. Then we create an entirely new category, referred to as the children's class with its method. If the child's class inherits from the parent group, it will be able to use all ways used in the parent's class. These methods are also available to the child class and the methods of the child class. That is why it is called inheritance.

The Programming and Implementation for Inheritance

In the above line of code, there is an initial class with several features and data. The created class implements the base class that has added features. The derived type has all the features found in the base class but has its characteristics. This is also called inheritance.

OOP Inheritance and Composition, Source: Youtube, WeTeach_CS

Note: Different programming languages use their keywords to refer to inheritance. As Java does with the extended keyword, C++ utilizes :(colon to inherit), Python uses () Parenthesis, and so on.

Polymorphism

Polymorphism is the central notion of the Object-Oriented programming principle. It is a term that means ' poly' is a plural form of multiple, morph"shapes. Thus, Polymorphism refers to many states.

Within Object-Oriented Programming, any object or method can have multiple names associated with it. It is simply Polymorphism.

For Objects: When any object can contain the reference to the object it is referencing, it's an equivocal polymorphism. To make this concept more efficient, let's take an example.

Object Oriented Polymorphism, Source: Youtube, Programming With Avelx

Example: We have televisions from different brands, Samsung TV, LG TV, Xiaomi TV, etc. We usually do not call it by the brand name when we need to identify it. We call it a Television. And it could be a brand of another. However, in general, we refer to it as TelevisionTelevision. This is a reason why it can be considered that it is Polymorphism.

Explanation

In the above picture, we have given the various models of TelevisionTelevision the common name that we refer to as TelevisionTelevision. Here we use the phrase Polymorphism is utilized.

It could also be described by the term "Generalization" because we have chosen an all-encompassing name that can be applied to all subclasses it is created from.

And, yes, it is possible to be accomplished using inheritance. Additionally, the object of the derived class may also be named using its name. Type that was created.

Conclusion

The Object-Oriented Programming Principle is one of the commonly used programming techniques that aid in developing large-scale Software used in real life. It uses the modules that allow several developers to collaborate using such a way that it can create the whole system. Object-Oriented Programming Principles also enhance security capabilities with advanced concepts such as Abstraction and Encapsulation.

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